Is there only one RFID technology?
No, companies are using and developing a variety of RFID technologies. Some RFID applications rely on active battery-powered tags that send out signals on their own. Other applications use passive tags. These are activated by a stationary or mobile reader and therefore do not need their own energy source. In general, no matter what type of hardware is deployed, RFID uses radio frequency signals to communicate with and identify tags. The frequency used will influence the read distance and speed. Near-Field Communications (NFC), for example, is also based on RFID. With this technology you will be able to buy a tram ticket using your mobile phone. The frequency used and the way in which the reader in the mobile phone talks to a NFC tag are specific. NFC readers can talk to NFC tags, but not to other types of tags.
The EPC is used for numerous RFID applications, including many in the retail, logistics and pharmaceutical sectors. Companies often tag shipping containers and pallets to track products from the manufacturer to the warehouse and retail outlet. However, other common RFID applications, such as building access cards or electronic passports, use RFID but not normally the EPC. The designer of an RFID application decides whether or not to use the EPC. Since it is already established as an industry standard, many companies in a wide variety of sectors opt to use the EPC to boost efficiency in their supply chains.